Kadınlar ve Erkekler: Gerçekten Farklı mı Müzakere Ediyoruz? / Men and Women: Do We Really Negotiate Differently?
Günümüz, toplumsal cinsiyet ve kadın ve erkeğin toplumsal rolleriyle ilgili bitmeyen tartışmalar ve fikirlerle dolu. Şimdi bu konuları bir tarafa bırakalım ve objektif bir şekilde kadının ve erkeğin müzakere ve arabuluculuk süreçlerindeki rollerine bakalım.
Cinsiyetlerimiz konusunda toplumda var olan normlar ve ön yargılar arabuluculuk becerilerimizi nasıl etkiliyor?
Peki ya müzakerede? Müzakere etme tarzı kadına ve erkeğe göre değişiklik gösteriyor mu? Örneğin bu konuda arabuluculuk uzmanı Kathy Perkins, müzakere ya da arabuluculuk süreçlerinde kadın ve erkeğin farklı yaklaşımları olduğunu belirtmiş. Kadınların daha çok büyük resme bakma eğiliminde olduğunu ve karşı tarafın ihtiyaçlarını dinleyerek kısa vadeli başarılar yerine uzun vadeli olanlar için çabaladığını söylerken, erkeklerin daha yükseği hedeflediğini, daha açık konuştuğunu ve taleplerinden vazgeçme ihtimallerinin genelde daha düşük olduğunu ifade etmiş…
Stajyerimiz Nathalie Versavel’in hazırladığı yazının devamını aşağıda bulabilirsiniz:
There are endless debates on gender issues, and unending opinions about the roles that women and men have in society. Putting this debate aside, we can have a more objective look at the role that gender plays in negotiation or mediation. And without getting into a discussion on feminism, assessing gender stereotypes and how they influence our mediation skills will draw some very interesting conclusions.
There are many stereotypes putting men and women into different categories. Some are probably true, in my opinion, but it is also easy to generalize and make assumptions. Men are said to be more analytical, while women are more emotional. This is more science than a stereotype, I believe, as women’s brains are 10% smaller but have a larger hippocampus, which is the part of the brain dealing with emotions. Men are more competitive whilst women are cooperative, men are direct and women are more “wordy”, men are self interested and women are nurture-focused”—it is a long list. some of these gender norms may be appropriate, but they are a generalization nonetheless.
How do these norms and stereotypes influence our mediation skills? The underlying issue is that when there is an expectation that one will act according to a certain stereotype, this individual unwittingly acts in the anticipated way. It is assumed that women who pursue their self-interests are not acting in a feminine manner, as this trait is usually associated with males. For example, a female employee wanting to negotiate her salary with her male boss is less likely to pursue her own interests as much, if she thinks her boss will not expect her to in the first place. Stereotypes can really hinder our actions, even when we don’t realize it.
What about the negotiating styles of men and women? Are they different? Yes, they are. Research conducted by Kathy Perkins, a mediation specialist, has shown that women tend to look at the bigger picture when negotiating or mediating. They listen to the other player’s needs and attempt to preserve business relations on a long-term scale, rather than just achieving short term victories. Men however, aim higher, speak up more, and are less likely to “back down”. Again, these are generalizations. The “perfect negotiator” in my opinion should be able to combine all these traits, regardless of gender.
It’s clear that men and women, regardless of the stereotypes and norms, have different negotiating and mediation styles. How can we apply this to the scale of international conflicts? Objectively speaking, when it comes to political leaders negotiating or discussing a global issue, for example, cooperation is better than competitiveness. Long term relationships and harmony should be considered when negotiating, rather than just thinking about needs and goals in that moment. These are attributes usually associated with females, so should women be represented more in the political sphere? According to UN Women, as of August 2015, only 22% of all national parliamentarians worldwide are women. Tin 1995, this figure was as low as 11.3%. Only in 11 countries are women Head of State, and in 13 countries Head of Government. Statistics from the World Bank show that in Turkey, only 14% of seats in national parliament are held by women. In the US it’s 19%, and in Yemen 0%.
The intention of this blog is not to criticize the attributes or styles usually associated with males in any way. On the contrary, it is to highlight the differences that we naturally have as human beings. However, having outlined the positive traits that women have and seeing the underrepresentation they have in the political sphere, one can’t help but wonder how different global politics would be if more women had positions in power!
This article was authored by our team member Nathalie Versavel.